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  • 3.1 Performing Graphics-Based Installations

This chapter describes how to perform a basic Oracle Linux installation by using a CD, DVD, or a USB drive. The installation can be in either graphics mode or text mode. The chapter describes both.

To install the operating system with the Btrfs file system, see Chapter 6, Installing a System With a Btrfs root File System.

The graphics-based installation is the default installation method which involves setting installation directives that are presented in a series of graphical screens. Use the appropriate keys to navigate through each screen.

To install Oracle Linux, you must boot the system from a boot image. You might also need to configure the host system's BIOS or hypervisor settings to use the boot device that you have chosen.

The boot menu contains the following options:

Install Oracle Linux

Uses the graphical installation program to install Oracle Linux, provided that the system has sufficient memory and the video card is supported.

Test the media and then install Oracle Linux

Default option, which tests the installation media and then uses the graphical installation program to install Oracle Linux, provided that the system has sufficient memory and the video card is supported. Otherwise, text-based installation is used.

Troubleshooting

Provides access to a separate menu which contains options for resolving issues with installing or booting an Oracle Linux 8 system. See Section 8.1, “Troubleshooting Menu Options”.

By pressing Tab, you can also access the boot configuration options and add other needed options, as explained in Chapter 2, Options for Installation. For a system that has limited resources, for example, you can specify the inst.vnc option to run the graphical installation program in a VNC session. Or, you can use the network install method instead of using VNC.

Select one of the options to install Oracle Linux and press Enter. The Welcome to Oracle Linux 8 screen is displayed.

If your BIOS system or UEFI-based system in BIOS legacy mode has a disk size of less then 2 TiB, the boot loader is automatically installed on the master boot record (MBR). However, if you want to use the GUID partition table (GPT) instead, then you would need to configure the boot options from this menu. Do the following:

  1. Select one of the options to install Oracle Linux and press Tab.

    The boot command line appears, including some default options.

  2. Add inst.gpt at the end of the line and press Enter.

    The boot process begins. After it completes, the welcome screen is displayed.


From the language list, select the language to use for the installation. Alternatively, type the name of the language in the search box to locate your preferred language. The language that you select becomes the default language for the system. Then, from the locale list, select a locale. If necessary, you can change the default language after you have installed the software.


Selecting any of the menu options opens additional screens for configuring the options. As a minimum, you must visit the options with a warning icon next to them. However, going through all the options is recommended so that you can see the various configuration settings that are available for the installation. You can change the installation configuration options as much as you like. The installation does not begin until you click Begin Installation. As you visit the configuration options, pay attention to any warning messages that are displayed at the bottom of the screen.

At the top right of the screen is the Keyboard switch. This switch appears in all of the option screens to enable you to change to a different available keyboard layout at any time during configuration. See Adding Keyboard Layouts for more details about keyboard layouts.

On this screen, you select the localization options to implement on the target system.

To add support for additional keyboards to be used with the system, click Keyboard to display the Keyboard Layout screen.


The default keyboard is automatically listed on the left pane. Click the plus sign (+) to add keyboard layouts that you want to install on the system. To change the order of the list, use the arrow keys. A keyboard at the top of the list becomes the default keyboard.

To view a keyboard's layout, select the keyboard and click the Keyboard icon at the bottom of the left pane.

To test a keyboard, click the Keyboard switch to change to the next keyboard layout on the list. Continue clicking until the keyboard you want to test is displayed. Then type some text on the text box. You can also click Options to configure the keyboard shortcut for switching between layouts.

Click Done to save your configuration and return to the Installation Summary screen.

To add support for additional locales to be used with the system, click Language Support to display the Language Support screen.


Select a language from the list of languages, or type a language in the search box, then select one or more locales from the list of locales.

Click Done to save your configuration and return to the Installation Summary screen.

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To set the correct time for the system, click the Date & Time to display the Date & Time screen.


Pick a time zone by clicking your system's location on the map or by using the region and city drop-down lists. You need to specify a time zone even if you intend to use the Network Time Protocol (NTP) to set the time on the system.

To set the date and time manually, ensure that the Network Time switch is toggled to OFF, then adjust the date and time.

To enable NTP, you must first enable the network through the Network & Hostname option on the Installation Summary screen (see Configuring Network & Host Name). Then, return to the Date & Time screen and toggle the Network Time switch to ON. Finally, click Settings to display a dialog box, where you can configure the NTP servers that the system should use.

Click Done to save your configuration and return to the Installation Summary screen.

This section describes how to use the options in the Software section of the Installation Summary screen.

When you install Oracle Linux, you need to specify a location that contains the full installation image. To specify a location, click Installation Source to display the Installation Source screen.


Select the location of the installation image:

Auto-detected installation media

This option is only available if the installation program detected a local device that contains the installation image. If you did not check the installation media when you started the installation, click Verify to check the media.

On the network

The On the network option is not available unless you enable the network through the Network & Host Name option in the Installation Summary screen. See Configuring Network & Host Name).

Select the network protocol that is required to access a network installation server from the list and then specify the appropriate information:

  • For HTTP or HTTPS, the URL of the installation image.

    If needed, click Proxy setup and configure the details for your organization's proxy server that acts as an intermediary for Internet access.

    Note that you can use the Oracle Linux yum server repositories as an installation source if the system has Internet access. Using these repositories as an installation source is particularly useful where a system is using an incomplete ISO, such as the Boot ISO or the UEK Boot ISO images, as installation media. If you choose to use this method, in the Installation Source dialog, use https://yum.oracle.com/repo/OracleLinux/OL8/baseos/latest/x86_64 as the main installation source. In the Additional Repositories section, add the following repositories:

    • Name:ol8_AppStream

      URL:https://yum.oracle.com/repo/OracleLinux/OL8/appstream/x86_64/

      URL Type: Repository URL

    • Name:ol8_UEKR6

      URL:https://yum.oracle.com/repo/OracleLinux/OL8/UEKR6/x86_64/

      URL Type: Repository URL

  • For NFS and FTP, the domain name or IP address of the server and the path to the directory that contains the installation image.

    For NFS, the path can be the path to an ISO image. Enter any NFS mount options that are required.

Click the plus sign (+) to add repositories of software that you want to install.

Click Done to save your configuration and return to the Installation Summary screen.

To select the software you want to install on the system, click Software Selection to display the Software Selection screen.


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From the list of base environments, select the environment that best matches the purpose for which you will use your system. From the list of add-ons, select the software that you want to add to the selected base environment. The add-on list varies depending on the base environment that you select.

Only the Server with GUI base environment, which is the default option, includes a graphical desktop when the system boots. All other base environments boot into a command-line environment.

The Minimal Install base environment contains only the minimum set of packages that are required to run Oracle Linux. It does not include many administration tools that you might normally use, such as wget or unzip. This environment is the most secure environment to install and requires the least system resources to run. After the software is installed, you can install any other packages that you require.

There is no base environment or add-on for installing the Oracle Database (RDBMS). After you install Oracle Linux 8, you can use the Oracle RDBMS Server Pre-Install RPM to perform preinstallation configuration tasks for Oracle Database. For more information, visit https://docs.oracle.com/en/database/oracle/oracle-database/18/ladbi/automatically-configuring-oracle-linux-with-oracle-preinstallation-rpm.html#GUID-22846194-58EF-4552-AAC3-6F6D0A1DF794.

Click Done to save your configuration and return to the Installation Summary screen.

This section describes how to use the options in the System section of the Installation Summary screen.

Choosing Where to Install the Software and Configuring Storage

To choose where to install the software and configure the storage, click Installation Destination to display the Installation Destination screen.


On this screen, you select the disks to use for the installation, as well as customize the disk configuration if you do not want to use the default settings.

Choose the devices on which you want to install Oracle Linux:

  • In the Local Standard Disks section, select the local disks that you want to use for the installation. A Tick icon is displayed next to the disks you have selected.

  • For specialized and network disks, you can add hardware RAID, iSCSI or Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE) storage devices. Click Add Disk to display the options for adding and configuring these device types.

By default, storage configuration is set to automatic.

Automatic disk partitioning creates the following layout on the selected disks:

  • A standard partition for an XFS file system mounted at /boot.

  • An EFI system partition mounted at /boot/efi (UEFI-based systems only).

  • A partition in the remaining disk space configured as a Logical Volume Manager (LVM) physical volume for an LVM volume group that contains:

    • A logical volume for an XFS file system for the root file system (/).

    • A logical volume for an XFS file system for the /home file system (if the selected disks are larger than 50 GiB in total).

    • A logical volume for a swap partition.

If you want to customize the configuration, select the Custom option and then click Done to open the Manual Partitioning screen, where you can create partitions for mount points with assigned disk spaces. You can partition disks using standard partitions, LVM logical volumes, or LVM thin provisioning.

On a BIOS system whose disk size is less than 2 TiB, MBR is used by default. If you want to use GPT instead, configuring the boot menu with the inst.gpt option is the simplest approach. See the note in Section 3.1.1, “Starting the Installation” for instructions. However, if you were not able to configure the boot menu at the beginning, then you would need to create a BIOS Boot partition manually from this screen. After selecting Custom, do the following:

  1. From the Manual Partitioning screen, if no partitions exist on the device yet, select Click here to create them automatically.

    This step creates the standard partitions for an Oracle Linux 8 installation.

  2. Click the plus sign (+) to create a new partition.

  3. From the Mount Point drop down list, select biosboot.

  4. For the Desired Capacity, enter 1 MiB then click Add mount point.

    If the partition cannot be created, adjust the sizes of the other partitions to provide sufficient space to the new partition. Then create the BIOS boot partition again with the indicated partition size.

  5. Select the newly created BIOS boot partition and on the right side of the screen that displays the partition's details, ensure that Device Type is Standard Partition. The partition must not be on an LVM volume.

  6. Click Done.

    A summary of the changes is displayed. If you are satisfied with these changes, click Accept Changes.

If you are manually configuring a regular UEFI system, the following are some considerations:

  • You do not need to create a BIOS boot partition.

  • Verify that a /boot/efi partition is created.

    From the Manual Partitioning screen, if you select Click here to create them automatically, the /boot/efi partition is included among the standard partitions. The partition size should be at least 50 MiB, although the optimal size is 200 MiB. Check that the partition is on Standard Partition, not on an LVM volume.

If partitions already exist on the system, then disk space might be insufficient for an Oracle Linux 8 installation. The information at the bottom of the screen indicates how much disk space is required to install the software you have selected. Ensure beforehand that disk space on the system is available for the software.

With automatic partitioning, you might not have sufficient space to install the software if the disk is already partitioned. The information at the bottom of the screen tells you how much disk space is required to install the software that you have selected. If you click Done while the destination disk has insufficient space, you would be prompted to free disk space.

To free up disk space, select I would like to make additional space available and click Done to display the Reclaim Disk Space window.

The option to create additional disk space is available only with automatic partitioning.


Select the partitions that you want to use, then click Delete, Shrink, or Delete all to free up disk space. Then, click Reclaim Space to available space.

If you select Encrypt my data on the Installation Destination screen, you are prompted to enter a passphrase for the encryption when you click Done.

This option encrypts all of the disk partitions, with the exception of the partition that contains /boot, by using Linux Unified Key Setup (LUKS).

If a partition is encrypted, you cannot access data on the partition without entering the passphrase. If you lose this passphrase, you cannot recover the data on the disk.

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If you only want to encrypt particular partitions, then you must select Custom configuration at the Installation Destination screen so that you can manually partition the disk. Then, for the encryption option, select the partitions on which to implement encryption. Note the following important issues when encrypting data:

  • For LVM, selecting Encrypt my data encrypts the LVM physical volume and all of the logical volumes that it contains. If you do not select Encrypt my data, you can encrypt the logical volume by selecting the Encrypt check box on the Manual Partitioning screen or encrypt the physical volume by selecting the Encrypt check box on the Configure Volume screen.

  • Do not select the Encrypt check box for an LVM or LVM Thin Provisioning device type for the /boot file system. The /boot file system must be configured on a standard partition and should be of the type, ext4 or XFS.

Clicking Full disk summary and bootloader displays the disk configuration including the location of the boot loader. From the display, you can change the boot loader's location or, if you prefer, skip the boot loader installation.

Click Done to save your configuration and return to the Installation Summary screen.

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To configure Kdump, click Kdump to display the Kdump screen.


In the event of a system crash, Kdump captures information that assists in determining the cause. By default, Kdump is enabled and the amount of memory reserved for Kdump is calculated automatically. Select the Manual option if you want to set the amount of reserved memory yourself.

Click Done to save your configuration and return to the Installation Summary screen.

Network connections are disabled by default. To connect the system to a network, either during installation or when the system boots, click Network & Host Name to display the Network and Host Name screen.


To enable a network interface, select the interface from the list of interfaces and then toggle the switch to ON. By default, the IP settings for a network interface are configured automatically by using DHCP for IPv4 and the Automatic method for IPv6. To edit the connection, click Configure to display the Network Connection Settings window.


To enable the connection whenever the network is available, select Connect automatically with priority on the General tab. Using the other tabs, configure the settings for the connection, as appropriate. To set a static IPv4 address, click IPv4 Settings and select Manual for the Method, and then enter values for the IP address, network mask, gateway, and DNS parameters. When you have finished configuring the connection. Click Save to save the configuration.

On the Network & Host Name screen, enter the host name of the system, either as a single name or as a fully-qualified domain name (FQDN), for example, host01.example.com. If you use the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) to provide network settings, enter a single name and allow DHCP to assign the domain name.

You can also add special network devices such as an interface bond or team, or a VLAN (virtual local area network) device. Click the plus sign (+) to access the configuration settings for these devices.

Click Done to save your configuration and return to the Installation Summary screen.

You can optionally set security policy at installation time by configuring settings in the Security Policy screen.

Because security policy is not required on all systems, only use the Security Policy screen if you need to enforce a specific security policy as defined by your organization or by government regulations.

As shown in Figure 3.13, there are several pre-defined policies (profiles) that are available in the Security Policy screen. These security policies follow the recommendations and guidelines that are defined by the Security Content Automation Protocol (SCAP) standard.

For discussions on security topics in Oracle Linux 8, see Oracle® Linux 8: Securing Oracle Linux.

You can also add custom security policies that you download from an HTTP, HTTPS, or FTP server. You use the Change content option in the Security Policy screen to configure custom policies.


Select a profile from the displayed list. Click Select profile. A message confirming the selection is displayed in the Changes that were done or need to be done: field. A check mark is displayed next to the selected profile.

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By default, applying a security policy is enabled. If you do not select a profile, then no security policy is implemented despite the setting. Alternatively, you can set the Apply security policy switch to Off to disable applying security policy on the system.

To use a custom profile from either an HTTP server or an FTP server, select Change content. A window opens where you type the URL to access the custom profile. Click Fetch to download the custom security profile.

Check that the Changes that were done or need to be done: field shows the changes to be made. Click Done to save the changes and return to the Installation Summary screen.

During the installation, the security policy that you applied is installed according to the restrictions and recommendations that are defined in the specified profile. In addition, the openscap-scanner package is added to the packages that are installed. This package provides a tool for compliance and vulnerability scanning.

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When the installation has completed, the system is automatically scanned to verify compliance, and the results are saved to the /root/openscap_data directory on the system.

The User Settings section has the following options:

  • Create the root password.

  • Create a user account.

    You can grant administrator privileges to the user to enable the user to run administrative tools by using the sudo command. To set additional configurations for the user, such as the user's home directory, click Advanced.

You must configure at least one of the options. For example, if currently you want to enable only the root account, create its password. Then click Done to return to the Installation Summary screen where you can proceed with the installation. You can add users to the system later.

Click Begin Installation. This button becomes available only when the warning icon no longer appears next to any of the menu options in the Installation Summary screen.

At the end of the installation process, reboot the system as prompted.

Depending on your software selection, the system might prompt you to accept the license at the end of the system reboot. Click License Information and accept the license. Click Done to return to the previous screen, and then click FINISH CONFIGURATION. The process ends with a login screen.

However, if the system skips the license prompt and proceeds directly to a non-graphical login prompt, then you can review the license agreement at /usr/share/oraclelinux-release/EULA after logging in.

The Oracle Linux installation program can also run in text mode. Text mode is used automatically under certain circumstances, for example, if the system has insufficient memory or the video card is not supported. You can manually switch to the text mode by specifying inst.text as a boot option on the boot command line or by adding that option in a kickstart file.

If you are installing the operating system with the Btrfs file system, see Section 6.2, “Using the Text Installer”.

To add the option to the boot command line, do the following:

  1. Boot the system from the ISO installation boot image.

    The boot menu is displayed. For a description of the options in the menu, see Section 3.1.1, “Starting the Installation”.

  2. Press Tab to access the boot line options.

  3. At the end of this line, add inst.text.

    Continue booting. At the end of the boot process, the text-based installation menu is displayed:

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The numbered options on the menu are the equivalent of the screen options in graphic-based installations. Each option is preceded by a flag surrounded by brackets:

  • [ ] - Option is not configured.

  • [x] - Option is configured with the default setting.

    The setting is displayed between parentheses under the option.

  • [!] - Option is configured but needs examination in case you want to specify your own setting.

To configure an option, type the option's number. The screen displays numbered values that are available for that option. Choose the value by typing the value's number. Then type c to continue. Continuing either returns you to the main menu screen, or displays additional related but non-obligatory options for you to configure. Type c also to skip screens.

After configuring all the necessary menu options, type b to begin installing. At the end of the installation, the system reboots.

Not all configuration options in graphical installations might be available in text-based installations.

Follow all the remaining prompts. At the end of the process, log in to the system and review the license agreement at /usr/share/oraclelinux-release/EULA.

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